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                                                                 No New Wiring Alarm Systems

Plug-in Module     Plug-in Module
                  Multi-Functional Alarm System for home & business

              No new wiring or batteries required

              Quick and easy to install
     
              Simple, low cost, "plug-in" modules

              Reliable security from proven technology

                                                     Customizable to suit your security needs
Alarm Monitor Panel

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No New Wiring Alarm Systems


About Alarm Systems

An alarm system works by sending information from a Transmitter to a Receiving unit.
For example, a motion detector detects an intruder and sends a signal to an alarm siren,
strobe light or autodialer. The success of an alarm system depends on how quick and
reliable is the transmission of that signal.

The two usual methods of transmitting alarm signals are through wires or by radio waves.

Wired systems are dependable and the hardware somewhat less expensive than the
wireless alernative. But - and this is a big "but" - they are a major inconvenience;
especially if being installed into an existing home or business. The installation is
often a nightmare with holes in walls, wires running through the building and workman
all over the place. Any possible cost savings on hardware can quickly be overrun by the
expenses of installation.

Wireless radio alarm systems are normally less hassle to install, but are often plagued
by other significant drawbacks. The hardware of the system is often very costly.
The signal transmission range is limited by distance,obstacles and/or the use of other
radio equipment. And the running cost can be expensive. Many wireless alarm systems
use batteries to power their components and for back-up. These batteries do not last
long, need constant replenishment and are expensive.

Now there is a third way to transmit alarm signals which has
all the above-mentioned benefits & none of the negative ones.

  • The "No New Wiring" Alarm System uses a patented technology involving foolproof
    coded signals being transmitted through your existing AC electrical power wiring.

  • This provides you with the dependability of wiring and with none of the installation
    nightmare and high costs.

  • The system is much more flexible, adaptable and economic.

To learn how it works, please click on either link: "In a nut shell"     or     "In more detail"

In a Nutshell

Kador offers a variety of Safe'n Secure products that can be integrated into a complete
safety and security system.

The alarm system can be as simple as a single "plug-in & go" type Transmitter-Receiver
pair or can include a Monitor Display Panel which monitors devices in as many as
1000 different locations.

Key features of the "No New Wiring" Alarm System are briefly described below:

1/ No New Wiring or Batteries Required

The patented technology behind "No New Wiring" Alarm System enables the reliable
transmission of alarm signals through the existing AC power lines in domestic or
commercial buildings.

2/ Simple Low-Cost "plug-in" Modules . . . Quick & Easy To Install

Handy Transmitter and Receiver modules communicate coded alarm signals across
electricity power lines. Modules can be plugged into standard power outlets or
hard-wired into the system. Each one has DIP switches which can be set to encode
or decode alarm signals. By this means, alarm signals can directed to Receiving
modules as required and the location of the activated modules can be traced.

3/ Versatile & Customizable To Suit Safety & Security Needs
  • With "No New Wiring" Transmitter and Receiver modules, one can custom-design
    an alarm system using a variety of safety and security devices such as:
    PIR detectors, smoke detectors, door and window contacts, Monitor Panels,
    Sirens, auto dialers etc..

  • For versatility, modules can easily be added to expand an alarm system and
    quickly moved to other locations. Each Transmitter can be encoded to send alarm
    signals to a likewise encoded Receiver. These codes can be changed as required.

  • A remarkable feature is the ability to extend a "No New Wiring" Alarm System to
    provide cover to any location on the electrical power system which shares the same
    transformer. Transmitter modules in one building can send signals through the existing
    AC electrical power wiring to Receivers in another building so long as both locations
    share the same electrical transformer.

New Technology

The new technology utilised in the "No New Wiring" Alarm System enables the alarm signals
to be successfully transmitted through a standard 120 volt 60 Hz electrical distribution
system. This is the electrical system found today in most homes and commercial buildings
in North America.

The key to the success of this technology is that it offers the following features:
  • High level digital pulse modulation at the zero crossings for reliable transmission.

  • Automatic transmitter synchronization that allows for multiple transmitters to operate
    simultaneously without interfering with each other.

  • Automatic noise detection.

  • Multiple code word commands that inhibits false commands.
For the more technologically-minded,  "click here"  to go to a further explanation of the
above features.

The main components
of the "No New Wiring" Alarm System are the Transmitter
and Receiver modules. These are low cost items designed for easy installation and
supplied in plug-in or hard-wired versions.

A Transmitter module is used at one location to transmit a coded signal through the
existing AC power wiring to a Receiver unit(s). The Receiver would receive, decode and
act on the signal. It might express an "alert" to the alarm condition and/or initiate some
further action such as a buzzer, strobe light, siren or auto-dialer.

In this alarm system, no new wiring is required.


Transmitters     Plug-In Transmitter Module       Push Button Transmitter       Transmitter: hard-wire type

The Transmitter modules connect directly to the AC power wiring either by plugging into a
standard power outlet or by hard-wiring. Each contains a DIP switch for setting a location
code.

The hard-wire units are miniaturized for concealment in the electrical outlet box, behind
a detector or other appliance. Simple fitting instructions are supplied with each module.

Transmitters are available for a wide variety of applications. They can be triggered by almost
any type of detector or manually (see Uses). When triggered, they transmit a coded signal
which is defined by the chosen DIP switch setting. Each Transmitter can be readily identified
and located from its DIP switch setting.

The alarm system can easily be expanded by adding any number of Transmitters. Each one
can be DIP coded to transmit only to specific Receivers without interference from any
of the other units.


Receivers      Receiver- Buzzer - Module          Receiver: hard-wire type

Receivers are available for both plug-in and hard-wire installation. The hard-wire units are
miniaturized for concealment in the electrical outlet box, behind a light, horn or other
appliance. Simple fitting instructions are supplied with each module.

All Receivers are single channel units in that they only respond to the Transmitter(s) whose
DIP switch setting matches their own. All other Transmitters are ignored so that the precise
location(s) of matching "live" Transmitter(s) can quickly be identified.

Receiver modules are available for a wide variety of functions: When activated by a signal
from a "matched" Transmitter, they can be used to set off an audible buzzer, strobe light,
auto dialer or other appliance. For some suggested applications go to Uses.

All Receivers are "non-latching" units. This means that once the Transmitter signal is
received, the Receiver will operate until the Transmitter stops signalling whereupon the
Receiver will automatically reset after 5 seconds.

Monitor and Display Panels          Alarm Monitor Panel

Various models of Monitor and Display Panels are available. The purpose of these is to
respond to signals from Transmitters and display their location code(s) (i.e. DIP switch setting).
The Panels contain an alarm buzzer, a relay to supply an electrical output and an indicator
light to announce each Transmitter's location(s).

These Panels are all "latching" units. Once a Transmitter's signal is received, they latch
into an alarm mode whereupon a buzzer is set off, a relay is activated to provide an electrical
output and a light comes on to indicate the transmitter location. This all continues until
the Panel has manually been reset after the Transmitter had stopped signalling.

To ensure reliable operation, the Monitor and Display Panels react to Multiple Code Word
commands. This means that they do not respond unless or until they receive at least two
consecutive code words from the same Transmitter within a 5 second time interval.
There should thus be no false alarms due to noise or intransients.


Extending a "No New Wiring" Alarm System

A big advantage of the "No New Wiring" Alarm System is that it can easily be extended
from one location to cover other areas on the same electrical power distribution system.
This is because the Transmitter and Receiver modules can communicate signals from
any point on the AC Power system that is served by the same Transformer.

In residential areas, electrical power is normally on a single phase system and distributed
to 8-10 houses which all share the same Transformer. "No New Wiring" Transmitter and
Receiver modules can not only be used within each of these houses but also between
them to provide greater alarm system coverage.

Power line sharing For example, if the Jones family were going on holiday, they would first plug-in some Transmitter modules to alarm their home for security.

They would have also pre-arranged with their neighbours, the Smiths (whose home is on the same power Transformer) to plug-in a Receiver module in their home.

Whilst away, if any Transmitter were activated in the Jone's home by say an intruder break-in, the coded alarm signal would immediately transmit through the existing power lines into the Smith's home and set off the Receiver.

In fact all the neighbours (whose home power shared a Transformer) could plug-in any number of "No New Wiring" modules to set up an extensive "Neighbourhood Watch" Security System.

Similarly, "No New Wiring" alarm systems can be set up to cover the safety and security of apartment buildings, condominiums, retirement homes, hospitals, schools . . .etc., with modules plugged-in to transmit and receive coded alarm signals throughout the existing AC power wiring of each location or between locations on the same electrical power distribution system.

Commercial, Industrial and Institutional Buildings and Facilities usually have a 3-Phase Power Distribution System. All Transmitter and Receivers will operate normally if plugged into any of the outlets on the same phase. However, if all outlets throughout the building are to be used in the alarm system, then a 3-Phase Coupler-Repeater Unit must be installed to allow the alarm signal transmission across the wiring of all phases.

Some Residential uses                    Some Commercial uses

Signal Boosters and Couplers          Signal Booster: plug-in module

Signal Boosters and Couplers may be necessary to insure integrity throughout the system.

Signal Boosters are used to compensate for signal loss due to long distances and/or heavy
current loads. This may be the case for large buildings such as factories, high-rise office
towers, hospitals. . . etc.. Also, homes in rural locations sharing the same transformer may
need some help to overcome the extra distance in power lines. Easy Plug-in or hard-wire
Signal Booster modules are available and normally solve the problem. If you think distance
might be an issue for your "No New Wiring" Alarm System, you should first try out a set of
Transmitter and Receiver modules to see if they work.

For 3-phase installations as found in most factories, a 3-Phase Coupler should be used.
And in locations, where there are multiple transformers such as large buildings, a
Transformer Coupler should be installed. Both units are modest in price and easy to install.







































































        
No New Wiring Alarm Systems

     About The Technology

         (Extracts from a recent paper written by the Inventor)

         "No New Wiring" Technology; involving the transmission of
         signals over the existing AC Powerlines, has held a lot of
         promise for Security, Event Monitoring, Remote Control, and
         Energy Management applications. This technology uses the
         existing AC Power wiring for the transmission of control, status,
         or emergency type signals from point-to-point within a building,
         or from one building to another (as long as they share a common
         utility transformer), without the expense and inconvenience of
         adding new wires.

         The use of powerlines for signal transmission have been limited
         in their applications because of the large amounts of electrical noise
         and transients found on the powerlines, particularly in commercial
         and industrial applications, where a 3-phase power distribution system
         is used.

         "No New Wiring" Technology offers unique solutions to these
         problems using Zero Crossing Digital Pulse Modulation and
         Consecutive Pulse count Coding technologies, that are
         covered by United States, British, and Canadian Patents, with
         other patents pending.

         The key to the success of this technology is in the fact that it
         allows for the economical inclusion of such features as:

         Noise Detection and Evasion
         Time Division Multiplexing
         Multiple Code Word Commands
         3-Phase power system distribution system operation
         (Industrial and Commercial Applications)

         These features are all combined in our, "No New Wiring System"
         to make them every bit as reliable as direct wire systems,
         with the added advantages of being more flexible, and
         much less costly.

         Zero Crossing Digital Pulse Modulation

         In the Zero Crossing Digital Pulse Modulation process, the
         AC Powerline is modulated by placing a high level pulse at the
         zero crossing of the AC wave, forming a 120 pulse per second
         pulse train. The amplitude of these pulses is in the order of 100
         volts for 120 vac operation. This modulation process offers the
         following features that are important to reliable system operation.

         First, the signal pulses are, for the most part, isolated from the
         AC Powerline noise and transients since these are not normally
         present at the zero crossings.

         Second, the large amplitude of the modulating pulses insure that
         the signal is not masked by the AC Powerline noise and
         transients.

         Third, since the zero crossing is a stable and well defined point
         on the AC wave, it allows system synchronization to facilitate
         such features as Noise Detection and Evasion and Automatic
         Multiplexing for the simultaneous operation of multiple
         Transmitters without interference.

         Consecutive Pulse Count Coding

         In the Consecutive Pulse Count Coding technique, the code
         information is contained in the number of consecutive pulses
         transmitted before a "missing pulse". By missing pulse we mean a
         zero crossing on the AC wave that does not contain a pulse. For
         example, 40 consecutive pulses might be code #1, and 41
         consecutive pulses might be code #2. Then to transmit code #1
         followed by code #2, a modulation pulse would be placed at 40
         consecutive zero crossings (code #1), and then at least one zero
         crossing would be skipped (missing pulse), and then a
         modulation pulse would be placed at 41 consecutive zero
         crossings (code #2).

         From this we see that each code is a pulse train with a precise
         number of consecutive pulses. This means that increasing or
         decreasing the length of the pulse train is the only way to alter the
         code. To increase the length of the pulse train, pulses must be
         added to either the beginning or end of the pulse train, and to
         decrease the number of pulses in the pulse, one or more of the
         existing pulses would have to be eliminated.

         At the Receiver, a zero crossing "gate" and level detector are
         used to reject all pulses that are not at the zero crossing or of
         sufficient amplitude. As far as the Receiver is concerned, a pulse
         is any perturbation of either polarity (plus or minus) that exceeds
         the threshold. When you consider the amplitude of the signal
         pulses is on the order of 100 volts, with several peaks caused by
         the "ringing" on the AC Powerline, the likelihood of a pulse being
         cancelled by noise or transients is nonexistent.

         In summary then, the key features of the Consecutive Pulse
         Count Coding are that each code is of a different length, that is,
         contains a different number of pulses. The code is altered only by
         the addition of one or more pulses at the beginning or end of the
         pulse train. Noise or transients that occur in the middle of the
         pulse train have no effect on the code.

         Transmitter Operation

         In order to insure that no pulses are added to the beginning of its
         code, each transmitter continuously monitors the AC Powerline
         with the same zero crossing gate circuitry that is contained in the
         Receivers. When it detects a pulse at the zero crossing, it
         generates a "busy" signal that inhibits the start of its transmission.
         This means that the transmitter will delay (in increments of 8.33
         milliseconds) its transmission until it detects a zero crossing that
         contains no pulse, thereby insuring that no extra pulse is added to
         the start of its code. In this way it is able to evade noise or
         transients, or pulses from other transmitters, that have the
         potential of adding pulses to the start of its own code. In
         addition, this feature allows multiple transmitters to avoid
         interfering with each other. This leaves only the possibility that
         the code can be altered by the addition of one or more pulses to
         the end of the pulse train. In order to eliminate the possibility of
         having a Receiver interpret a pulse added to the pulse train as a
         valid command, Multiple Code Word Commands are used.

         Multiple Code Word Commands

         Multiple Code Word Commands means that the receiver is
         required to receive at least two (2) identical code words within a
         one second period before it interprets that code word as a valid
         command.

         To show how extremely effective this requirement is in reducing
         false commands, consider the following example. Assume that
         the electrical powerline on which we are operating is so noisy
         that with a single code word command, we can expect one false
         command to occur each day (24-hour period). From probability
         theory, we can the calculate the expected false command rate
         when we require each command to contain two identical code
         words within a one-second interval.

         There are 86,400 one-second intervals in one day (24 hours).
         From the theory of probability, the probability of two false code
         words occurring in a one-second interval is:

         Probability Calculation

         This shows that as a result of requiring two identical code words
         in a one second period, we went from a false command rate of
         one per day, which could not be tolerated, to a false command
         rate of one in over 237 years.

         Time Division Multiplexing

         The coding technique and transmitter operation described above
         allows multiple transmitters to automatically synchronize
         themselves and to avoid interference from AC Powerline noise
         and transients, and from each other. As described previously,
         each transmitter will delay its transmission until it detects a
         missing pulse, thereby insuring that no other transmitter is
         signaling. This amounts to Automatic Time Division
         Multiplexing, which allows each transmitter to transmit in a
         separate time slot without interference from other transmitters.

         Operation On a 3-Phase Power Distribution System

         Commercial facilities (factories, institutions, hospitals, office
         buildings, hotels/motels, etc.) almost always have 3-phase power
         distribution systems (120V/208V). In a 3-phase power
         distribution system the times at which the zero crossing occur is
         different from phase-to-phase. The figure below shows the
         voltage waveshapes of a 3-phase power distribution system.
         Note that the point at which the voltage wave crosses zero
         occurs 120 degrees later on the 2nd phase than on the 1st
         phase, and 240 degrees later on the 3rd phase. From our
         discussions on powerline carrier reliability, one of the keys to
         reliable operation was the placement of the signal pulses at the
         zero crossings.

         3 Phase Voltage Waveshapes

         The 3 Phase Coupler/Repeater, Model XXXX, is used to
         accomplish this when operating on a 3-phase system. Referring
         again to the 3-phase waveshapes, when the Transmitter is on the
         1st phase, it places its pulses at the zero crossings of that phase,
         and the 3 Phase Coupler/Repeater will repeat the exact pulse
         count at the zero crossings of the other two phases (with the
         appropriate delay).

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